Xenon reacts with fluorine to form numerous xenon fluorides according to the following equations: However, due to the high radioactivity and short half-life of radon isotopes , only a few fluorides and oxides of radon have been formed in practice. Under extreme conditions, krypton reacts with fluorine to form KrF2 according to the following equation: These are compounds such as ArF and KrF that are stable only when in an excited electronic state ; some of them find application in excimer lasers. In addition to the compounds where a noble gas atom is involved in a covalent bond , noble gases also form non-covalent compounds. The clathrates , first described in ,  consist of a noble gas atom trapped within cavities of crystal lattices of certain organic and inorganic substances. The essential condition for their formation is that the guest noble gas atoms must be of appropriate size to fit in the cavities of the host crystal lattice. For instance, argon, krypton, and xenon form clathrates with hydroquinone , but helium and neon do not because they are too small or insufficiently polarizable to be retained. Bonding in such compounds can be explained using a three-center four-electron bond model. For example, bonding in XeF 2 is described by a set of three molecular orbitals MOs derived from p-orbitals on each atom.
How accurate are carbon-dating methods? All methods of radioactive dating rely on three assumptions that may not necessarily be true: Rate of Decay It is assumed that the rate of decay has remained constant over time. This assumption is backed by numerous scientific studies and is relatively sound.
Then, in he was again forced to recant on these ideas by testifying in a written statement and sentenced to life imprisonment house arrest until his death in Gingerich, !
The Radiometric Dating Game Radiometric dating methods estimate the age of rocks using calculations based on the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium, strontium, and potassium. On the surface, radiometric dating methods appear to give powerful support to the statement that life has existed on the earth for hundreds of millions, even billions, of years. We are told that these methods are accurate to a few percent, and that there are many different methods.
We are told that of all the radiometric dates that are measured, only a few percent are anomalous. This gives us the impression that all but a small percentage of the dates computed by radiometric methods agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found, and that all of these various methods almost always give ages that agree with each other to within a few percentage points. Since there doesn’t seem to be any systematic error that could cause so many methods to agree with each other so often, it seems that there is no other rational conclusion than to accept these dates as accurate.
However, this causes a problem for those who believe based on the Bible that life has only existed on the earth for a few thousand years, since fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be over million years old by radiometric methods, and some fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be billions of years old. If these dates are correct, this calls the Biblical account of a recent creation of life into question.
After study and discussion of this question, I now believe that the claimed accuracy of radiometric dating methods is a result of a great misunderstanding of the data, and that the various methods hardly ever agree with each other, and often do not agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found.
How does potassium-argon dating work?
Public Opinion Introduction The television, newspapers, and textbooks commonly proclaim, as though it were proven fact, that the earth is 4 to 5 billion years old. What is not commonly taught is how the scientists determined that age. What assumptions did they make? What evidence did they use?
Unlike common carbon 12C , 14C is unstable and slowly decays, changing it back to nitrogen and releasing energy.
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How accurate are Carbon-14 and other radioactive dating methods?
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In addition, the shells of living mollusks regularly date to more than years old using the radio-carbon method.
Davy on the bellows at a public demonstration of science at the Royal Institution in London. Image by James Gillray. Sodium and then potassium reacting with water. Discovery of Potassium Dr. Doug Stewart In English chemist Sir Humphry Davy discovered that chemical bonding was electrical in nature and that he could use electricity to split substances into their basic building blocks — the chemical elements.
In he isolated potassium for the first time at the Royal Institution, London. He electrolyzed dried potassium hydroxide potash which he had very slightly moistened by exposing it to the moist air in his laboratory. The electrolysis was powered by the combined output of three large batteries he had built. He also bravely added potassium to hydrochloric acid and saw it burn with a bright red flame.
Interesting Facts aboutPotassium Potassium and its close periodic table neighbor sodium are solids at room temperature. Their alloys however are not. NaK alloys containing 40 to 90 percent of potassium by weight are liquids at room temperature. All living cells need potassium to maintain fluid balance, therefore we and all other forms of life on Earth need potassium minerals to survive.
Potassium Element Facts
The J factor relates to the fluence of the neutron bombardment during the irradiation process; a denser flow of neutron particles will convert more atoms of 40K to 40Ar than a less dense one. However, in a metamorphic rock that has not exceeded its closure temperature the age likely dates the crystallization of the mineral. Thus, a granite containing all three minerals will record three different “ages” of emplacement as it cools down through these closure temperatures. Thus, although a crystallization age is not recorded, the information is still useful in constructing the thermal history of the rock.
Dating minerals may provide age information on a rock, but assumptions must be made.
Books such as “Limits to Growth” and its sequel, “Beyond the limits” Meadows, et al.
At the time that Darwin’s On the Origin of Species was published, the earth was “scientifically” determined to be million years old. By , it was found to be 1. In , science firmly established that the earth was 3. Finally in , it was discovered that the earth is “really” 4. In these early studies the order of sedimentary rocks and structures were used to date geologic time periods and events in a relative way. At first, the use of “key” diagnostic fossils was used to compare different areas of the geologic column.
Although there were attempts to make relative age estimates, no direct dating method was available until the twentieth century. However, before this time some very popular indirect methods were available. For example, Lord Kelvin had estimated the ages of both the Earth and the Sun based on cooling rates. The answer of 25 million years deduced by Kelvin was not received favorably by geologists.
Both the physical geologists and paleontologists could point to evidence that much more time was needed to produce what they saw in the stratigraphic and fossil records. As one answer to his critics, Kelvin produced a completely independent estimate — this time for the age of the Sun. His result was in close agreement with his estimate of the age of the earth.
How potassium-argon dating works
Stumble Upon Advertisement Like the lapis lazuli gem it resembles, the blue, cloud-enveloped planet the we recognize immediately from satellite pictures seems remarkably stable. Continents and oceans, encircled by an oxygen-rich atmosphere, support familiar life-forms. Yet this constancy is an illusion produced by the human experience of time. Earth and its atmosphere are continuously altered.
Plate tectonics shift the continents, raise mountains and move the ocean floor while processes not fully understood alter the climate.
Wasn’t this the map that was rediscovered somewhere in Turkey?
Important We believe any unbiased reader will realize that we were fair with our treatment of the two models in the table above. Yet, although the theory of evolution matches the facts in some cases, evolution is still an unproven theory. By now, you may believe it should be your first choice also. Unlike many others that preceded us, we attempted to find a clear defense of evolution for two reasons: To keep from being accused of bias.
To keep from making claims that someone could refute later. Even though there are a great number of claims in books and on the Internet, we could find no scientific, testable facts that support the theory of evolution. The best site we could find was at The University of California at Berkeley. If you are interested, click here to examine the scientific evidence recorded at UC Berkeley yourself. It includes lots of pictures, links to other pages, and scientific names.
The site is very interesting and informative. Yet, we could not find a listing of the provable, testable facts supporting evolution anywhere. Take some time and search the Internet yourself.